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IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Networking Components

 

 

RJ-45 Connectors are the standard terminating interface for unshielded twisted-pair wire (UTP) IEEE 803.2 Ethernet installations.  The RJ-45 Termination Interface is the accepted 8-Pin international network interface as defined by the most current revisions of ANSI/TIA/EIA 568 and ISO/IEC 11801 Cabling Standards for Cat-5, Cat-5e and Cat-6 applications.  It should be noted that most homes and businesses use the 6-Pin RJ-11 as the standard telephone terminating interface (often referred to as Modular Plugs and Jacks or Mod-Plugs and Mod-Jacks). 

 

GG-45™ Connectors feature a high-speed shielded design concept for use in 600 MHz or faster Ethernet applications that require shielded cabling.  The GG-45's unique design is effectively two connectors in one capable of interfacing with either Cat-6 cables (RJ-45) or Cat-7 cables (GG-45).  ISO/IEC 11801 and ISO/IEC 60603-7-7 specifications have standardized the GG-45 shielded connector as the connector of choice for Cat-7 high-speed Ethernet applications.  

 

 

RJ-45 Cat-5e & 6 Ethernet Wiring Interface Diagrams

ANSI/TIA/EIA 568-A

ANSI/TIA/EIA 568-B

568A

568B

Not Recommended for New Installations

Recommended for New Installations

 

 

Please see the above table for the two most popular wiring diagrams for terminating Ethernet RJ-45 Patch Cords (Jumpers).  When updating an existing network installation, Elite Electronics recommends that you verify which wiring method is being used in your installation.  To ensure proper network operation, it is advised not to mix the ANSI/TIA/EIA 568 'A' and 'B' wiring methods.  New installations should always use the ANSI/TIA/EIA 568B wiring scheme.  It should be noted that 'patch cords' using either wiring method can be used without adversely affecting your network's performance.  When using 'patch cords,' Elite Electronics recommends before using a 'patch cord' of unknown origin that you verify that the 'patch cord' (jumper) is not a cross-over cable. 

 

Important Note:  Using a 'cross-over cable' in a normal network application can cause a network failure.

 

Ethernet Classes & Cable Types

Ethernet Class

Maximum Data Rate

Cable Type

10Base - 2

10 Mbps

      Coaxial

10Base - 5

10 Mbps

      Coaxial

10Base - T

10 Mbps

      UTP Cat-3 or Cat-5

100Base - T

100 Mbps

      UTP Cat-5, Cat-5e, Cat-6 or Fiber

1000Base - T

1 Gbps

      UTP Cat-5, Cat-5e, Cat-6 or Fiber

10 GbE

10 Gbps

      UTP Cat-5e, Cat-6, Cat-7 or Fiber

40 GbE

40 Gbps

      Fiber

 

 

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Network Cabling achieves a certain level of EMI (electromagnetic interference) immunity due to the electrical properties of the FEP insulated twisted-transmission pairs' twist-ratio of 3-twists per inch.  When a UTP network cable is subjected to electrical interference, the noise affecting the twisted-pairs is cancelled in large part by 'Common Mode Rejection' due to the carefully selected insulating system and twist-ratio of the transmission pairs.  Higher levels of shielding performance can be achieved by using either ScTP or STP shielded network cabling.  It should be noted that the external shielding of ScTP and STP cabling improves performance but increases the overall cabling and installation costs.  

 

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable is comprised of 4-twisted copper pair individually shielded with an overall metal foil (screen) with a drain wire and the outer cable jacket.  STP cables should be terminated using a shielded GG-45 connector or equivalent. 

 

Screened Twisted Pair (ScTP) Cable is comprised of 4-twisted copper pair shielded by a metal foil (screen) with a drain wire and the outer cable jacket.  ScTP cables should be terminated using a shielded GG-45 connector or equivalent. 

 

♦    Category 5e ~ Class 'D:'  ANSI/TIA/EIA 568B-2.1:2001 & ISO/IEC 11801:2002 

 

♦    Category 5e ~ Class 'E:'   ANSI/TIA/EIA 568B-2.1:2001 & ISO/IEC 11801:2002

 

 

Cat-5, Cat-5e, Cat-6 & Cat-7 Cable Comparison  

Cable Description

Cat-5

Cat-5e

Cat-6

Cat-7 *

Wiring Scheme

TIA/EIA -568-A

TIA/EIA -568-B

TIA/EIA -568-B.2

TIA/EIA -568-x

ISO Classification

Superseded

Class 'D'

Class 'E'

Class 'F'

Typical Bandwidth

100 MHz

350 MHz

550 MHz

600+ MHz

100 MHz Readings

(dB)

(dB)

(dB)

(dB)

Insertion Loss

Cable

22.0

22.0

21.3

19.9

Connector

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

Channel

24.0

24.0

21.3

21.3

NEXT (Near End Cross Talk)

Cable

N/S **

35.3

39.9

42.3

Connector

N/S **

43.0

54.0

54.0

Channel

N/S **

30.1

39.9

TBD

ELFEXT (Equal Level Far-End Crosstalk)

Cable

N/S **

23.8

27.8

24.8

Connector

N/S **

35.1

43.1

40.1

Channel

N/S **

17.4

23.3

TBD

Return Loss

Cable

16.0

20.1

20.1

20.1

Connector

14.0

20.0

24.0

24.0

Channel

8.0

10.0

12.0

12.0

* ISO/IEC 11801:2002 Category 7 Class 'F'            ** N/S = Not Specified

 

 

Category 5 (Cat-5) Cable is a Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable designed for use in 100 Mbps (100-megabits per second) Ethernet applications.  Cat-5 cable electrical performance characteristics are specified and controlled by ANSI/TIA/EIA-568.  Typically, Cat-5 UTP cables are made up of 24-gauge copper fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) insulated twisted-pairs using a twist ratio of three twists per inch.  The Cat-5 UTP design concept cost-effectively reduces electrical interference and crosstalk; and, because of the low dielectric constant of the FEP insulation Cat-5 tends to be frequency independent.  During installation, care should be taken to minimize termination impedance mismatches.  In addition to its Ethernet capabilities, Cat-5 can be used for 155-Mbps short-haul Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), token-ring and voice applications.  In most Cat-5 applications, the Cat-5 cabling is terminated using RJ-45 connections terminated according to either ANSI/TIA/EIA-568A or 568B specifications.  In new installations, the ANSI/TIA/EIA-568B wiring protocol should be used. 

 

Category 5 Enhanced (Cat-5e) Cable is an enhanced version of Cat-5 cable that has been designed for use in 90-meter 1000 Base-T networks or long-haul 100Base-T (350-meter) applications.  With the adoption and implementation of ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2:2001, Cat-5e cables must meet or exceed the electrical performance requirements for Near End Cross Talk (NEXT) and Equal Level Far-End Crosstalk (ELFEXT) for ISO/IEC 11801:2002 Class 'D,' since the adoption of ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2:2001, most Cat-5 cables sold in the United States today are actually Cat-5e.   

 

Category 6 (Cat-6) Cable has been designed to meet or exceed the electrical performance requirements of ANSI/TIA/EIA 568B-2.1:2001 for use in Gigabit Ethernet (1000Base-T) applications of 90-meters in length.  Cat-6 is the copper-based cable standard for Gigabit Ethernet (1-Gbps).  Cat-6 cable must meet or exceed higher electrical performance requirements for Near End Cross Talk (NEXT) and Equal Level Far-End Crosstalk (ELFEXT) for ISO/IEC 11801:2002 Class 'E.' To ensure Cat-6 cables meet or exceed the more stringent performance requirements of ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2:2001, they are constructed using 4-twisted 22 or 23 AWG copper pairs instead of the 24-gauge wire used in Cat-5e cables.  Cat-6 UTP cables are typically terminated using the ANSI/TIA/EIA-568B wiring protocol and RJ-45 connectors that are backward compatible with 10Base-T, 100Base-T and 1000Base-T applications.  Some high-performance applications, particularly in Europe, may require the use of shielded twisted pair (STP) or screened twisted pair (ScTP) cabling.  When shielded cabling is specified and used, the cables should be terminated using a shielded GG-45 connector or equivalent. 

 

Category 7 (Cat-7) Cable is an emerging standard that is being driven by the worldwide effort to achieve a single international standard for a cost-effective copper-based expanded bandwidth (600 MHz or faster) network cabling designs.  The electrical and mechanical performance standards for Cat-7 cable have finally stabilized at Class 'F' with the merging of ANSI/TIA/EIA 568B-2.1:2001 and ISO/IEC 11801:2002.  The Cat-7 Class 'F' performance requirements require the use of a 4-copper pair shielded cable design. There are two shielded cable design concepts currently in use for Cat-7 cables, shielded twisted pair (STP) and screened twisted pair (ScTP).  To meet the EMI/RFI and electrical performance requirements for Class 'F' network cabling, Category 7 cables must be terminated using a shielded GG-45 connector or equivalent.  Properly terminated and installed Cat-7 cabling is capable of supporting 100Base-T, 1000Base-T or 10 GbE (10-Gbps) network applications. 

 

 

Elite Electronics requires its fabricating sources to provide a written ISO Certificate of Compliance (C of C) inclusive of the product's ISO Manufacturing Date Code, RoHS - 2002/95/EC (Directive on the Restriction of the use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical & Electronic Equipment) and WEEE - 2002/96/EC (Directive on Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment) compliance with each production shipment.   

 

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